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Accueil > Recherches > Méthodes et outils > Méthodes qualitatives

Qualitative methods

par Arancha Sánchez - publié le , mis à jour le

Sociological approaches

[Content in progress]


Researchers :


Historical approaches


At CIRED, history is a discipline, a matter of discussion and a reflexivity tool, which enables a dialogue between past and present researches on environmental issues. Two sets of historical research regard the CIRED favorite topics.


A first set deals with environmental, economic and social history. These researches concern the history of industries and cities, in particular through the following topics : industrial pollution since the 18th century, land settlement and urban spaces management, engineering practices, power relationships between local partners, environmental justice. They are also interested in the history of energy and energy transition.


A second set of studies is rooted in a history of economic thought framework. These works are designed to draw common lines between past and present economic discourses about natural resources and environmental external effects. The way economists consider environmental constraints, and the relationships between economics and natural sciences, are mainly addressed. This history of environmental and natural resources economics helps understand how economists look at, theorize and model environmental issues, still today.


Researchers : Antoine Missemer, Geneviève Massard-Guilbaud, Christophe Cassen, Franck Nadaud.


Institutional and new institutional economics


The institutional analysis is focused on the following issues : forms of competition, bundles of property rights, role of the state, integration in international trade, relationship between organizations and their social and natural environment, interactions between formal and informal institutions, plurality of the "modes of governance" beyond conventional distinctions (market / hierarchy or firm / state), impact of institutional path dependency in the negotiation regarding climate change and biodiversity erosion, as well as the global scenario processes.


The new institutional analysis is focused on the analysis of the characteristics of transactions regarding natural capital (including biodiversity) in order to understand how these characteristics generate transaction costs and specific organizational forms (markets, hierarchies, hybrids forms). In the field of study of the energy transition (liberalization), the challenge is to compare and identify the institutional arrangements and market mechanisms to promote low-carbon energy (including renewable energy) in line with the market designs of the electricity and gas markets. Finally, at the international climate negotiations scale, the analysis is focused on the relationship between the negotiations related to the climate and the integrated models developed.


Researchers : Bernard Barraqué, Christophe Cassen, Gilles Crague, Dominique Finon, Harold Levrel, Franck Nadaud