Centre International de Recherche

sur l’Environnement et le Développement

Nos tutelles

CNRS Ecole des Ponts CIRAD EHESS AgroParisTech

Nos partenaires



Accueil > IMACLIM > Description des modèles IMACLIM > IMACLIM-R


publié le , mis à jour le

The framework of Imaclim-R

IMACLIM-R is a multi-sector multi-region dynamic recursive growth model (12 sectors and 12 regions). It provides a macroeconomic framework which analyses the relations between the economy and energy sectors. It represents interactions between sectors and regions through the equilibrium of goods market and simulates the economic impact of changes which occur in the energy sector both in the macroeconomic level (change in welfare, gains or loses of competitivity) and the microeconomic level (weight of energy in the structure of production costs or in households expenditures). The strategy adopted to elaborate Imaclim-R lies on the recursive architecture as well on the representation of some mechanisms which explain short term fluctuations : imperfect anticipations, uncompleted use of production factors, inertia at different levels : equipment, techniques, preferences, trade flows or capital flows. The architecture of the model relies on two principles :

- each static equilibrium represents an annual economic balance (production, consumption, international exchanges) through a walrasian equilibrium of the world economy.
- between two successive static equilibriums, dynamic nexus represent the evolution of techniques and stocks of production factors (capital, work, natural resources) fueling a progressive growth between each static equilibrium.

One main point is that each static equilibrium does not describe the collective optimum of the production regarding available technologies. On the contrary, the equilibrium is constrained to a sub-optimal configuration by different choices of representation :

- inadequacy between the industrial apparatus and final demand can derive from the inertia of equipments and imperfects allocations of investments between sectors, leading to overcapacties of productions in some sectors and sub capacities in others for example, creating tensions on prices and quantities ;
- an immediate reallocation could nearer to the collective optimum with the same state of techniques ;
- rigidities of the labor market and differences in quantity and quality between supply and demand of labor workers impede to reach full employment ;
- capital flows are not submitted to an universal rule of levelling of marginal profitability of the investment and have an impact on the terms of exchange, the availability of the investment and the final demand of investment goods ;
- preexisting taxes can create distortions limiting production levels final utility, when they do not aim at correcting negatives externalities ;

Some equations of behaviour are not equations of profit optimization or of the utility but rely on routine of behaviours or functions of empirical parts.

In Imaclim-R, the static equilibrium lies on a representation of the economy both in physical quantities and currency values which are linked by variations of relative prices. More precisely, energy quantities are always expressed in a common unity (ton equivalent oil). Quantities of non energy goods are expressed in real physical quantities when the level of sectorial disaggregation enables it (passengers-km, ton of steel..) or in an index of volume when the sector is too large to be assimilated with an unique coherent good (services, manufacturing industry).

Technical note :

- A brief description of IMACLIM-R Download
- A full temporary description of IMACLIM-R Download

WIKI presenting the model

Complementary material :

- Hamid-Cherif M., Waisman, H-D, 2016. “Global carbon pricing and the “Common but differentiated responsibilities” - The case of China”. International Environmental Agreements : Politics, Law and Economics. Volume 16, 671–689. DOI 10.1007/s10784-015-9289-2

- Bibas, R., Méjean, A., Hamdi-Cherif, M., 2015. ["Energy efficiency policies and the timing of action : An assessment of climate mitigation costs" Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol A, pp137-152

- Waisman H., Guivarch C., Grazi F. & Jean Charles Hourcade The Imaclim-R model : infrastructures, technical inertia and the costs of low carbon futures under imperfect foresight, 2012, Climatic Change, Volume 114, Number 1
the article and the supplementary material,

- Sassi O., Crassous R., Hourcade J.-C., Gitz V., Waisman H., Guivarch C., 2010, "Imaclim-R : a modelling framework to simulate sustainable development pathways", International Journal of Global Environmental Issues (accepted), Working Paper version

- Crassous, R., Hourcade, J.-C., Sassi, O., 2006, "Endogenous structural change and climate targets : modeling experiments with Imaclim-R", Energy Journal, Special Issue on the Innovation Modeling Comparison Project, Download